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建筑师: Seijo Peon Arquitectos

地点:墨西哥尤卡坦州,圣布鲁诺

总建筑师:Juan Carlos Seijo Encalada

设计组:Claudina Peon, Gabriela Arcila, Federico Sauri

面积:1062.55 sqm

年份:2011

摄影: Tamara Uribe Manzanilla

这个住宅的客户是一对有四个女儿的夫妇,他们希望在一片23米长的海边地块为全家建一座海滨别墅。他们最初的设想是建一座面朝大海的主屋,主屋后面再盖三座房子,而在这种设计中,只有主屋能看到海景,后面的房子都看不到。特别需要考虑的问题是,即使如今还没有左邻右舍也在这里盖海滨别墅,但是这种情况在不久的将来随时都有可能发生。项目需要四个有其各自生活辅助设施的起居室,以及10间卧室(主屋4间,其余房子各2间)。另外还需要有一个共享的生活辅助设施区域。

在设计分析过程中,项目丰富的功能与自然环境成为我们的主要出发点。我们绞尽脑汁,摩拳擦掌,希望能出乎客户意料,超额完成一项主要的初始任务:让每座房子都能直接欣赏到海景。我们考虑到,虽然将房子与大海成45度斜角摆放,每个房子的观海视野都不会受到阻挡,但是一旦邻居们将来在旁边盖房子,必然会影响看海的视线。遵循这一思路,我们直面设计挑战,让每个卧室与客厅都能欣赏海景,甚至考虑到了未来可能会在周边盖起的建筑物。从设计角度来看,在如今杳无人迹的海边建造以倾斜角度面对大海的房子并没有那么困难,然而考虑到将来可能被左邻右舍的房子挡住视线,我们的设计任务就要复杂得多了,必须在客户这片直面大海的土地上解决所有的海景问题。

首先,沿着一条虚构的从西北至东南的轴线排列每个房子,这样每个房子才能至少看到大海,同时也利用了该地区主要的风向。在这个系统中,每个房子都需要有一部分功能与其前面紧挨着的那个房子重叠,是以该部位的立面刚好面对前面房子的背面。若采用传统的直线型体量,在视线投向大海时就会遭遇一堵很有冲击力的墙,刚好与主要视野的方向垂直。

为此,我们在每个房子的东侧都设计了一个线条非常流畅的曲线形平面,这样从每个起居室和卧室望向大海,就不会遭遇明显的阻碍了……以这种设计方式实现了面向大海的最大的空间流动性。从每间主卧都能看到大海,而曲线重叠的部位可为其他房间创造视觉效果。

在西边也设计了柔和的曲线形外墙,将人引领至面向大海的门廊/露台,这里也是每个房子的入口。主屋的入口位于室外平面布局那条极其清晰的视觉轴线的尽头。这些露台还起到了风洞的作用,为每个房子的主要客厅带来新鲜空气。较小的曲线形混凝土板被放置在不同高度上,用于重新定向并利用气流,让每一个室内空间都拥有自然通风,这当然是极为适合热带地区的。另外,曲线设计也能在客厅之间起到保护隐私的作用。

建筑的形式风格在当地社区引发了好几种解释,人们纷纷猜测也许是从设计伊始就受到了海浪、风帆、贝壳、沙丘、船只等环境因素的启发……而事实上,这种曲线设计的原因就是面向大海进行大量空间与视觉分析的结果。当然,在设计的过程中,建筑师也承认了外形与环境因素的相似性,并进一步将项目融合于周围环境中。

原文:

Architects Office: Seijo Peon Arquitectos

Location: San Bruno, Yucatán, Mexico

Architect: Juan Carlos Seijo Encalada

Team: Claudina Peon, Gabriela Arcila, Federico Sauri

Area: 1062.55 sqm

Year: 2011

Photographs: Tamara Uribe Manzanilla

The clients, a couple with four daughters, wished to have a beach house for all of them, in a 23 meter beach-front lot. Their original idea was to have a seafront main house and three adjoining bungalows in back, so in this approach, only the main house would have frontal views to the ocean, and the bungalows wouldn’t. This is especially important taking in regard that even if today no next-door neighbors have built their beach houses, it could happen in any time in the near future. The program required four social areas with their respective services and 10 bedrooms (4 in the main house and two per bungalow). In addition there was a requirement of a shared service and support area.

The extensive program and rich natural environment were the main motivations of the design analysis process. Our efforts were applied to one main initial task which was unforeseen by our clients and in a way quite ambitious: Giving each house a frontal direct view to the sea, taking in regard that only diagonal views to the ocean would not cut it, as the neighbors could build in the future and the ocean views would be compromised. Following this ideal, we took the challenge of designing in order that each bedroom and social area could enjoy an ocean view, considering even the future potential surrounding constructions. Accomplishing diagonal views to the sea through the now uninhabited side lots were not that complex in terms of design, but as the views would probably be obstructed by future buildings, we engaged in the much more complicated design task of resolving all views thru our clients lot directly to the sea.

The work was begun by arranging each house through an imaginary Northwest to Southeast axis in such a way as every house had at least some ocean view and taking advantage of the prevailing winds. In this system, each house was required to overlap a portion of its program with the house immediately in front of it, so that part of the façade would be confronted by the back-side of the house in front. Using conventionally orthogonal volumes, the view to the ocean would be met with a very aggressive wall, perpendicular to the main axis view.

From that point we followed the idea of working with very fluid curved lines on the eastern extension of each house, so the views from each social area and bedroom would slide gently towards the ocean… spatial fluidity towards the ocean was maximized be this approach. Each main bedroom has a major front to the sea, and the overlapping between curves generates visuals for the other rooms.

On the west side, curves were also designed to gently lead to porches/terraces facing the sea that serve as access to each bungalow. The access to the main house is placed at the end of a very clear visual axis in the exterior layout. These terraces also serve as wind tunnels that generate freshness to the main social area of each house. Smaller curves and concrete slabs are placed at different heights to redirect and take advantage of air currents so every interior space has a natural wind flow which is very convenient of course in the tropics. Also the curves were designed to provide privacy between social areas.

The formal language has generated several interpretations among the local community regarding the contextual elements that may have inspired the design from the beginning (waves, sails, shells, dunes, boats)…  The truth is that the origin of the curvilinear design was the result of an extensive spatial and visual analysis towards the sea. Of course during the design process the similarities with contextual elements were acknowledged and exploded to relate the project to its surroundings.