Arch Go! 建筑实例 建筑图片 建筑文章翻译

建筑师: Atelier d’Architecture Christian Girard

地点:法国萨瓦

总建筑师:Christian Girard

设计组:Christian Girard, Christophe Hebert, T.Sugi, M.Shun, L. Capdevielle, C.Cobel

面积:371.0 sqm

年份:2012

摄影:N.Borel

巍峨的群山常常给人以雄伟崇高之感。在漫山遍野的积雪覆盖下,其庞大的身形仿佛在拒绝任何建筑的介入。时间在这里凝固。永恒恰恰衬托出了人类丰功伟绩的脆弱。而最近在法国萨瓦海拔1200米的地方建造的矿石小屋就充分证明了这一点。

鉴于建筑基址群山和峡谷环绕,风光秀丽,引人入胜,该项目也充分利用了这一令人惊叹、激动人心的自然风光,也可以说是起到了画龙点睛的效果。在这样一种令人印象深刻的环境中,建筑设计水准丝毫不能逊色于美景。在这片壮丽的天然美景之中,千百万年来的岩石运动轨迹早已无法考证,建筑物则必须与这种无法追忆的过去形成呼应关系。可以说,岩石留住了时光的脚步。因此,建筑物就成了人类时间与地质学时间产生碰撞的那一个瞬间。矿石小屋是一座由石块与岩石建造的庇护所。因此与近来建成的山地农舍式别墅的建造标准尚有一段距离。这些农舍式别墅的建立是为了展现建筑的奢华。法国的Villaroger村有着严格的建筑法规。该项目始于一个拆毁的农场和旁边原有的山地农舍,农场被拆到只剩下了外墙,根据当前的科技发展状况,这种条件给建筑师提供了机会在当地建筑与当代对可持续建筑的渴盼之间创建联系。

这种联系对施工起到了指导作用。在建筑物之间开一道9米长的垂直洞口,从而与原有的农舍创建实体纽带。原有农舍的石墙原样保留于新建筑之中。这是在仔细地重新解读项目中的当地建筑设计。因此,关键之处是如何从原先的废墟中创建另一座农舍。矿石小屋栖身于一个从未存在过真正的建筑、仅仅是房子的地方,任务显得很艰巨。小屋离开了历史的视角,饱含对未来的憧憬镌刻在这片土地上。这座石屋并非是重建。建筑师为项目设想了各种断裂和转变的可能性,如立方体木箱悬挑于玻璃幕墙的外侧。这一结构参照了当地的悬挑式阁楼,对当地的建筑类型表达了敬意。

这样一来就形成了数量可观的观景视野:面向北方的断瓦残垣点缀以可欣赏全景风光的“观景阳台”。在二楼也能欣赏到变化万千的景致。屋顶在该项目中扮演着至关重要的角色。在这里并未建造另一面传统木屋顶,而是以钢筋混凝土屋顶作为顶盖,令空间的使用更加灵活。建筑规范颇为严格,这也让人有机会在由各种楼梯连接的许多楼层上工作。室内空间如同一连串的序列,以流动的开放式循环通道为基础提供各种功能空间。厨房位于一楼,上方覆盖着巨大的采光天窗。

在项目的所有地方都能见到石材表面。楼梯间墙面上布满水平和垂直的洞口,这里只能用混凝土墙砌筑。从外侧看,功能区附近的洞口并不很清晰,从而加深了墙面给人的印象。刨除了在建筑室内外创建可见联系的想法。同时,这一策略也展示了村里老房子的特色,从洞口看不出其背后的空间功能:卧室、厨房、起居室……矿石小屋的木箱与石墙的接触面很有特色,每一块石头都能与每一块木质面板对应,木板顺应石头的不规则排列方式而摆放。这种相互配合的方式让截然不同的材料之间也能产生一种微妙的联系。

在结构设计中还结合了抗震与雪崩防护的优势。矿石小屋拥有天然地热资源,因而在可持续性与能耗方面也达到了最高标准。岩石下的地下水终年恒温,在这里打了三个150米深的钻孔,一台热泵用来循环用水。建筑中安装了地热与双通通风设备,其整体供暖与制冷系统也就消失于无形了。

总而言之,矿石小屋嵌入原有的废墟中,却丝毫不产生接触,而是创建了一个中间空间。这个过渡空间在过去和现在之间维持着一种不断发展的张力。因此,矿石小屋造就了一个毫无传统特点的建筑环境。传统的农舍窗户尺寸受保温条件的限制,而矿石小屋与此相反,以优质的玻璃与框架为屋内带来了充足的光线。在法国阿尔卑斯山,滑雪胜地的传统建筑表现形式已成为一种商业口号,缺乏新意,让人兴致索然。而矿石小屋是一次少有的尝试,试图抵消在萨瓦颇为风行的这种由怀旧情怀导致的建筑偏好。

原文:

Architects: Atelier d'Architecture Christian Girard

Location: Savoie, France

Architect In Charge: Christian Girard

Design Team: Christian Girard, Christophe Hebert, T.Sugi, M.Shun, L. Capdevielle, C.Cobel

Area: 371.0 sqm

Year: 2012

Photographs: N.Borel

Mountain ranges often appear to be sublime. Under a mantle of snow their enormity would seem to defy the possibility of architecture. Time does not pass. Eternity stands opposed to the fragility of human accomplishments. And yet contemporary architecture has a place in an ancient hamlet. A fact amply demonstrated by the recently constructed Mineral Lodge at an altitude of 1200 metres in Savoie.

As the site offers exceptional views of the surrounding mountains and valleys, the project makes use, perhaps emphasizes, this stunning and dramatic natural landscape. In such an impressive environment building must take place with a light hand. In this natural and majestic scene, building becomes an act which must be in dialogue with the immemoriality of the rocks’ own historical movements. The rocks fix time. Building therefore is the moment at which human time encounters geological time. The Mineral Lodge is a refuge of stones and rocks. As such it stands at a distance from the norms governing the tradition of recently constructed chalets. The latter are marked by an attempt to portray luxury. The hamlet of Villaroger has strict construction rules. The project which began with both the ruin of a farm – all that remained were the outside walls – and an adjacent pre-existing chalet offered the chance to construct a dialogue between a vernacular architectural presence and the contemporary desire for a sustainable architecture informed by the most recent technological developments.

This dialogue guided the construction. A physical link was created with the pre-existing chalet by providing a nine metre vertical opening between the buildings. In the new chalet the stonewall of the old chalet was left as it was. Careful reinterpretation of vernacular architecture accompanied the project. What matters therefore is the emergence of another chalet from a pre-existing ruin. This is an important undertaking because the Mineral Lodge establishes architecture in a place where previously there had not be architecture but mere building. The Lodge departed from a historical perspective and was inscribed in vision of the future. The stone house was not rebuilt. The project imagined possibilities for ruptures and transitions such as the square wooden box that is projected outside the glass wrap of the curtain-wall. This element acts as a reference to local overhang attics and addresses the typology of vernacular architecture.

A number of views on the landscape are provided:  the ruins facing North are punctuated by an “observatory balcony” with a panoramic view. The second floor level delivers a variety of vistas. The roof takes an important role in the project. Instead of constructing another traditional wooden roof, a reinforced concrete roof serves as an envelop and allows for a more flexible use of space. Hight limitations imposed by regulations gave the opportunity to work on a variety of levels connected by different staircases. The interior space is thought as a series of sequences providing areas based on fluid and open circulations. The kitchen situated on the ground floor is covered by a large skylight.

The use of stone as surface cladding is visible throughout the project. The horizontal and vertical openings of the staircase volume could only have been constructed with concrete walls. From outside the openings which correspond to program are not immediately legible. Heightening thereby the effect of the surface. The idea of a visible relationship between the interior and exterior is abolished. At the same time, this strategy reflects the older chalets of the village in which the openings do not indicate what kind of space lies behind: bedroom, kitchen, living room… The Mineral Lodge's wooden box has a singular contact to the stonewall. Each stone registers its relationship with each wooded panel. The latter adapting to accommodate the irregularity of the stones. Through this interaction fundamentally different materials achieve a subtle connection.

Earthquake constraints and avalanche protection are integrated into the structural design. Mineral Lodge in terms of sustainability and energy consumption achieves the highest standards due to geothermal heating.  A heat pump circulates water in three 150m deep drills in the rock where temperature is stable year round, and the presence of underfloor heating and double-flux ventilation means that the entire heating and cooling system is invisible.

In sum, the Mineral Lodge embedded in existing ruins yet not touching them creates an intermediary space. This interstitial space maintains as productive an ongoing tension between past and present. As a result, the Mineral Lodge offers an architectural environment without expressing any kind of traditionalism. In opposition to the conventional chalet where window sizes used to be constrained by thermal insulation, the Mineral Lodge offers more light into the house with high quality glass and framing. In the French Alps the traditional architectural expression in ski resorts have become a commercial slogan lacking any sense or interest.  The Mineral Lodge is a rare attempt to counteract this nostalgia driven architectural predilection ever apparent in Savoie.