Arch Go! 建筑实例 建筑图片 建筑文章翻译

建筑师:BP Architectures

地点:法国巴黎

设计团队:Jean Bocabeille,Ignacio Prego

造价:€ 25,670,000

占地面积:9,845 sqm

项目年份:2012

摄影:Courtesy of BP Architectures, Sergio Grazia, Luc Boegly

建筑师在设计M9-C多功能大楼时面临着两大挑战:一是必须将学校、文化、住宅和停车场这四种功能融合在一片复杂的区域内;此外由于该项目位于巴黎第十三区的边缘地带,另一个亟待解决的问题便是协调建筑密度与城市塑造之间的关系。将上述的四个项目彼此叠加在一起,整个项目便与通向奥斯特里茨车站铁轨上方的最新“上层”城市景观连在一起,同时利用为行人设置的电梯也与沿Chevaleret大街而建的低矮城区连在了一起。

由于紧邻铁轨,建筑师便将该项目设计为具有清晰的城市轮廓和不同风格的立面(城市开发区一侧的立面光滑平整,而区域中心一侧的立面则采用了褶皱、折叠、分离的处理方式),并表现出了精确的建筑结构,这些都使该建筑呈现出了独特的风格。它结合了建筑学和土木工程学理论,隐藏了复杂的建筑结构,创造出各种各样的公共空间和私人空间,同时建筑师专注于细节并打造出令人赞叹的建筑元素也使该栋建筑变得熠熠生辉。

差异与统一

M9-C多功能大楼位于巴黎左岸,是多功能建筑的设计典范。它包括一栋容纳了九个年级的学校建筑和两栋位于大磨房大街的教职员工公寓;一个拥有224个座位的三层剧院,入口位于Chevaleret大街上;66套出租的社会住房,包括管理员公寓以及容纳51个车位的停车场。

在整个建筑区域内项目的各种元素无法全部表现出来。而参加此次竞赛的各支设计队伍却实现了这一点——不但有获胜者BP建筑事务所,还有Francis Soler建筑事务所、K Architectures建筑事务所和Gaëtan Le Penhuel建筑事务所。

由于该项目位于通向奥斯特里茨车站铁轨上方的公寓区域尽头,因而用公共电梯将大磨房大街和Chevaleret大街连接起来。这便解决了斜坡带来的问题。

从法兰西大道望去,整栋建筑仿佛紧紧地关闭着,统一的巧克力色砖块覆盖着表面,在日光的照耀下闪闪发亮。然而从大磨房大街上看去,它的复杂性和多样性却表现得淋漓尽致。剧院的石质饰面与建筑物其他部分的砖块和金属元素形成了鲜明的对比。屋檐的轮廓遵从了城市规划师Bruno Fortier对于Masséna-Chevaleret地区的建议,尤其是用于附近公共建筑的法国黄色石灰岩(街道清洁服务项目和支撑墙)。

至于建筑物外部的上方,项目采用了涂漆的砖块墙面板,以便于确保与邻近建筑的统一性,这些临近建筑是由Brenac + Fonzalez建筑事务所和建筑师、规划师Yves Lion设计的。砖块、石材和铝构件上用小字标记了规格,使它们在高度和宽度上互相匹配,从而确保它们虽然形态不同但却能够形成一个整体。

共存

户外区域和公共设施是共享的,以保证它们能够融合在一起。学校的紧急出口同时也是部分公寓的入口。至于剧院的舞台,与弹簧箱和其他绝缘材料一起被设计成放在箱子中的箱子,将其与可能存在种种限制的环境隔离开来。此外,通往停车场的其中一个入口坡道沿着观众席不断延伸,成了一片缓冲区域。

在操场一侧,建筑师将公寓设计成一连串的阶梯式结构,以保证人们的生活空间不受操场喧闹声的影响。相反,遮篷保证了孩子们不会被让人害怕的恶作剧所吓到。保持了安全距离,但不需要任何防护网。

这样的安排至少在夏季也能够提供遮阳保护。公寓的立面包含折叠式百叶窗,它与建筑区域的中心部分拥有相同的保温隔热效果,并呈现出了统一的外观。

学校

悬挑屋顶在学校操场上方伸展,这样从公寓中掉落的物体就不会砸到学生,同时形成了以特殊造型的天花板遮盖住的操场。木质面板和巨大的花盆将操场分为两部分——小学部分和幼儿园部分。它是一个三角洲的形状,指向巴黎的南部,同时在植被区域中形成了三角洲的顶点部分,植被又逐渐形成了小型的支撑墙。

教室沐浴在自然光线下,涂着素雅的颜色,内部以简单的、略有上世纪70年代风格的家具来装饰。绿色和橙色是走廊的主色调,同时它们也点缀着教室。木树脂面板保护着墙面。将它们融合在一起,这些细节为整个建筑营造了一种变化无穷的独特感。

公寓

人们可以通过三个入口进入公寓。尽管公寓符合了目前所有的消防标准、准入标准和热能标准,然而与正常的社会住房项目相比,它们在高度、布局和楼层面积方面仍然“非比寻常”。

厨房通常是半开放式的,内部设计了一个酒吧,可以直接看到客厅的环境。客厅延伸至相邻的房间,相邻的房间利用半柔韧的窗帘与外界隔离开来,从而能够形成一间办公室或卧室。每间公寓的走廊都沿着窗户而建,保证了充足的光线,同时也可以欣赏巴黎市中心秀美的景色和蓬皮杜艺术中心,或者也可以在东部看到从伊夫里焚化场的烟囱。

然而公寓的主要特色是阳台中包括穿孔铝质百叶窗,这些百叶窗能够根据一天中的时光流转或者日光的照射量来开启和向后折叠,住户们可以选择在私密的环境中生活,也可以选择置身于城市的繁华景象之中。阳台为住户们提供了公寓的户外延伸区域。

剧院

剧院位于一楼,呈现出迥然不同的设计风格,黑色的观众席上有224个座位,混凝土入口未经装饰,还有一个由棕色、黑色和金色条纹装饰的门厅。人们需要身着优雅时尚的素净晚礼服进入附近的Théâtre 13剧院,而它现在已经拥有第二个观众大厅了。

原文:

Architects: BP Architectures

Location: Paris, France

Design Team: Jean Bocabeille, Ignacio Prego

Budget: € 25,670,000

Area: 9,845 sqm

Year: 2012

Photographs: Courtesy of BP Architectures, Sergio Grazia, Luc Boegly

There were two challenges in designing the M9-C project: having to mix four different uses – school, culture, housing and parking – on one complicated plot; and addressing the issues of density and shaping the city on the edge of Paris’s 13th arrondissement. By superimposing the four projects on top of each other, the project connects the recent “upper” city landscape above the railways tracks leading to the Gare d’Austerlitz and the ground-level lower city along Rue Chevaleret by means of a lift for pedestrians.

The project’s distinctly urban outline, the varying styles of façade (smooth along the line of the urban development zone; pleated, folded and divided towards the centre of the plot) and the strict structure due to the immediate vicinity of the railway tracks make this a unique building. It is a combination of architecture and civil engineering, concealing its complexity to allow the variety of public and private space, the attention to detail and an element of surprise to shine forth.

Difference and unity

The M9-C plot is the Left Bank Parisian mixed-use project par excellence. It contains a nine-class school complex and two staff flats on Rue des Grands Moulins; a 224-seater, three-level theatre with an entrance on Rue du Chevaleret; 66 rented social housing units, including a caretaker’s flat; and a 51-space underground car park.

It was impossible to spread the various elements of the project over the whole plot. Every team participating in the competition realized this – [bp], the winners, but also Francis Soler, K Architectures and Gaëtan Le Penhuel.

A public lift connects Rue des Grands Moulins to Rue du Chevaleret, since the project is at the end of the flat concrete area over the railway tracks leading to the Gare d’Austerlitz. This is how it deals with the problem posed by the slope.

Seen from Avenue de France, the building looks as if it’s closed off, wrapped in a uniform cloak of chocolate-coloured bricks that twinkle in the sunlight. But from Rue des Grands Moulins its complexity and variety are dazzlingly apparent. The theatre’s stone facing contrasts with the brick and metal of the other parts of the building. The outline of the cornice follows urban planner Bruno Fortier’s recommendations for the Masséna-Chevaleret area, in particular the Buxy stone used for nearby public buildings (street-cleaning services and a holding wall).

As for the building’s outside upper reaches, the project has opted for varnished brick shingles in order to ensure some continuity with the nearby buildings by Brenac + Fonzalez and Yves Lion. Short specs registration has been carried out on the brick, stone and aluminium elements to match them heightwise and widthwise and thereby ensure that they are different but also form a whole.

Coexistence

The outdoor areas and utilities are shared to ensure this intermingling. The school’s emergency exits are at the same time the entrances to some of the flats. As for the stage of the theatre, along with the spring box and other insulation materials, it is designed as a box within a box to isolate it from its potentially restrictive surroundings. In addition, one of the access ramps to the car park runs along the auditorium and acts as a buffer.

On the playground side, the flats are designed as a series of steps to protect people’s living space from the commotion of the playground. Conversely, canopies ensure that the children are protected from the kind of malevolent acts people are always afraid of. A safe distance is maintained without any need for netting.

The arrangements also offer sun protection, at least during the summer. The façades of the flats have folding shutters that provide the same heat insulation and give a uniform appearance to the centre of the plot.

School

Overhanging roofs project some way out over the school playground and protect pupils from any objects that might fall from the flats above, as well as creating a covered playground with sculpted ceiling ridges. The playground is separated into two sections – primary and nursery – by wood panels and big flowerpots. It is a delta shape pointing towards the south of Paris and culminating in a curtain of vegetation that will gradually colonise the small holding wall.

The classrooms are bathed in light, painted in discreet colours and equipped with simple, slightly seventies furniture. Green and orange are the dominant colours in the corridors and they are also dotted around the classrooms. Wood resin panels protect the walls. Taken together, these details bring a sense of variety and uniqueness to the project.

Flats

There are three entrances to the flats. Although they comply with all current fire, access and thermal standards, they are ‘unusual’ in terms of their height, layout and floor area compared to normal social housing projects.

The kitchens are generally half-open, with a bar that looks into the living room. The living room stretches into an adjacent room that can be closed off to make an office or a bedroom thanks to a semi-flexible curtain. The corridors in each flat run along the windows to ensure they are brightly lit as well as enjoying the wonderful views towards the centre of Paris and the Centre Pompidou, or else towards the chimneys of the incineration plant in Ivry to the east.

The major feature of the flats, however, are their balconies with perforated aluminium shutters that can be opened and folded back according to the time of day or the level of sunlight, allowing residents to choose between privacy and exposure to the sounds and sights of the city. The balconies offer residents an outdoor extension of their flat.

Theatre

The theatre is on the ground floor and completely different in design, with a black 224-seater auditorium, a raw concrete entrance and a brown, black and gold striped foyer. Elegant, chic, plain evening dress for the nearby Théâtre 13, which now has a second auditorium.