Arch Go! 建筑实例 建筑图片 建筑文章翻译

建筑师: Dominique Perrault Architecture

地点:荷兰格罗宁根

合作建筑师:Oving Architekten

工程:Dijkhuis Groningen(结构工程),Zonderman B.V. (电气工程), Feenestra(暖通工程),Gevekebouw B.V.(总承包方)

客户:Christelijke Woningstichting Patrimonium

占地面积:10,230 sqm

建筑面积:23,400 sqm

竣工时间:2011

摄影: Jim Ernst, Mark Sekuur / Prima Focus

自由居——“La Liberté”社会住房&办公楼在甲方、建筑师及格罗宁根市政府之间始终如一的通力协作之下竣工了。

该项目是城市改造和城市社会发展强有力的象征。自由居作为当地景观中的新标识,一经建成就大受欢迎:目前所有的公寓都已租出!

格罗宁根是一座年轻的城市,为荷兰十大主要城市之一,自2004年以来就一直在发展一项住宅运动,名为“密集城市”。市政府希望通过避免郊区化保护乡村地区不被侵吞,确保城市空间的质量,使城市保持紧密的状态与旺盛的活力。

尽管这个新城市项目提升了格罗宁根的整体环境,但是市政府仍然相继开发了几个重点项目:格罗宁根Ring Zuid项目,沿着国家主要高速公路开发更多更特别的居民区;Weg der Verenidge Naties,位于格罗宁根的南部。

在荷兰交通部、格罗宁根省和格罗宁根市的鼓励下,这个新设计策略成为城市改造与社会改革的主要议题,还涉及环境领域。首先,为了提升城市交通能力,增加交通路线的数量,这条高速公路作为真正的城市边界将逐渐被“瓜分”。

在高速公路的周围都是城市高层建筑,以此来创造和保护建筑底部的绿地。保存这些绿色空间及其之间的通道,将形成对所有人开放的生态路径,确保了新的生物多样性。

与此同时,市政府开始与各家房地产开发商合作开发办公楼和/或社会住房,将设计任务委托给许多国际建筑师。许多项目尚在建设之中,特别是由UN Studio建筑事务所设计的一些办公楼,以及由Mecanoo建筑事务所设计的住宅楼。

所以在2007年,Christelijke Woningstichting Patrimonium公司邀请多米尼克•佩罗在城市的西南区域设计建造两座混合用途建筑,即租赁社会住房与办公楼。

建筑场地位于格罗宁根郊区,周围都是典型的战后建造的社会住宅区。多米尼克·佩罗将利用城市文脉创造自由居的建筑体量。设计要求是建造参天大楼,所以建筑师在这个地面上设计了一种递增型的体量。

该项目由两座平面布局为正方形的建筑构成:一座大楼约80米高(A座),而另一座40米高(B座)。

两座楼底座均由独立的玻璃结构平台构成,高度相同,内部为办公场所。它们并未比附近的建筑高,考虑到与周围环境的关系,并且扩展了原有建筑的水平状态。

接下来是两个高度不同的建筑体块,它们似乎漂浮在平台上方,其内部为社会住宅。在这里,建筑师用这些建筑体量做起了堆积木的游戏:实际上A座上方的两个住宅体量大小一致,彼此略微错开位置。看上去就好像建筑师将各种不同的体量堆积起来:B座由一个办公楼体量和一个住宅体量堆成,而A座由一个办公楼体量和两个错位的住宅体量堆成。

“悬浮”于办公楼上方的住宅体量是通过5米高的露台相连的。在这个连接结构处仅有一个核心体包围着公共空间,为办公空间与私人空间之间提供了简洁的过渡区域。最后有一座人行天桥位于两座大楼相同的高度处,起到了连接的作用,面向使用者开放。

多米尼克•佩罗通过对建筑立面的处理,在两座大楼之间,以及项目与周围城市环境之间创造了真正的联系。无论从哪个角度看去,三个住宅体块的外观颜色都不尽相同,分别为黑白灰色。这些颜色增强了堆叠的印象,进一步为城市的天际线增添了活力。

此外,一些抛光钢面板被垂直连接在立面上,不但突出了立面的特色,还丰富了建筑的外观形象。多米尼克·佩罗设计的这个社会住宅项目品质出众,而且空间宽阔实用。每一层都有5间公寓,所有的公寓都有三个房间,平均使用面积很大。

荷兰法律规定,面对高速公路的公寓立面必须完全采取封闭式设计。这个住宅项目不能打开一扇窗户,因而无法通风。于是多米尼克·佩罗将这些公寓围绕着室内玻璃凉廊建造。这些凉廊可以整体移动,配备了精密的过滤器,可真正地保护居民免受噪音污染。

最后,安装在凉廊上的抛光钢面板可捕捉自然光线,将之反射到公寓内部。这些镜子也为居民提供了另外一种如同身处户外之感。

自由居共有120套公寓,分为15种户型,细分又有大约40种类型。

所以这个高层建筑在建筑底部保留了自由空间。在建筑北面,多米尼克•佩罗为了与整体环境相符,设计了生态园林,开发当地的动植物群。园林向所有人开放,与城市的生态环境相融合。建筑师将会在两座楼的南部建造一座“冥想”花园。这个空间也将会对所有人开放。

多米尼克·佩罗在这个项目中表达出了许多层面的建筑对话:项目与城市环境、两座大楼的建筑设计关系,另外公共与私人空间之间的简易连接结构也让居民与办公室工作的人们之间的交流更加顺畅。

多米尼克·佩罗实现了一个面向城市开放的建筑:通过对建筑规模差异的巧妙控制,这两座大楼成了一个崭新的标志性建筑物,也创建出全新的城市景观。

原文:

Architects: Dominique Perrault Architecture

Location: Groningen, The Netherlands

Associated Architect: Oving Architekten

Engineering: Dijkhuis Groningen (structures), Zonderman B.V. (electrical engineering), Feenestra (heating and ventilation systems), Gevekebouw B.V. (general contractor)

Client: Christelijke Woningstichting Patrimonium

Site Area: 10,230 sqm

Built Area: 23,400 sqm

Completion: 2011

Photographs: Jim Ernst, Mark Sekuur / Prima Focus

“La Liberté”, social housing and office building, has been realized within a constant collaboration between the client, the architect and the City of Groningen.

The project is a strong symbol of the urban renewal and the social development of the city. New signal in the landscape, “La Liberté” has known an immediate success: all the apartments are already rented!

Groningen, a young city, numbered among the 10 important cities of the Netherlands, is been developing since 2004 a housing campaign called “The Intense City”. By avoiding the suburbanization, protecting the rural areas and guaranteeing quality urban spaces, the municipality wishes to keep the city compact and alive.

Already strengthened by this new urban vision for Groningen, the city has launched afterwards the Ring Zuid Groningen initiative, to develop more particularly the neighbourhoods lining the main highway of the country, Weg der Verenidge Naties, located in the South of Groningen.

This new strategy, encouraged by the Ministry of Transports, the province and the City of Groningen, is a major issue in the urban and social renewal of the city, but also in the environmental area. First of all, this highway, acting as a real urban border, will be gradually trenched and “divided up” in order to improve and intensify the urban circulations and links.

Around the highway, the city has recommended high rise architecture in order to create and preserve green spaces at the bottom of the constructions. The preservation of those green spaces and their connections will allow an ecologic lane, opened to everyone and guaranteeing a new bio diversity.

In parallel, the city has started to work with different property developers for the realisation of office and/or social housing buildings and to appoint international architects. Several projects are under construction and in particular some offices by Un Studio and some housing by Mecanoo.

So, the Christelijke Woningstichting Patrimonium Company has ordered in 2007 to Dominique Perrault the construction of two mix-used buildings, rental social housing and offices, in the south-west of the city.

Located at the outskirts of Groningen, the parcel is surrounded by typical post war social housing blocks. Dominique Perrault will take advantage of the urban context to create the volumes of “La Liberté”. As the request was to build high up, the architect leans on this horizontality to create a crescendo of volumes.

The project comprises the construction of two square plan buildings: one tower of approximately 80 meters (tower A), and another of 40 meters high (tower B).

The buildings are both made up of a platform, entirely in glass, independent, with the same height (R+2) and accommodating the offices. As they are not taller than the nearby blocks, the platforms respect and extend their horizontality.

Then, two blocks, with different heights, seem to be floating above the platforms and accommodate the housings. Here the architect plays with the volumes: actually the tower A is made up of two volumes of housing with equivalent proportions, and slightly shifted. It seems that the architect has piled up different volumes, one on the others: one volume of offices and one volume of housing for the tower B, one volume of offices and two shifted volumes of housing for the tower A.

The housing blocks are hanging above the offices thanks to a 5 meters high terrace. In this “in-between”, only a core, sheltering the common spaces, brings an easy transition between the private spaces and the offices. At last, a footbridge, located at the same level and opened to the users, links up the both towers.

Through the treatment of the façades, Dominique Perrault creates a real dialogue between the both buildings and between the project and its urban environment. Whatever the viewpoint, the façades of the three housing blocks never offer the same treatment of colours – black, grey and whites. These shades of colour strengthen the stack impression and energize the city skyline.

Moreover some polished steel panels are placed perpendicularly to the facades, which punctuate the façades and multiply the perceptions of the building. Dominique Perrault delivers here social housings of quality, offering substantial dimensions and spaces. Each level has 5 apartments; all the apartments have 3 rooms and a wide average surface area.

The Dutch law enforces a totally deaf façade for the apartments facing the highway. This housing can’t have any opening window and there is no ventilation. Dominique Perrault plays with this imposition by articulating these apartments around glass inner loggias. These loggias, totally mobile and equipped with sophisticated filters, work as a real protection against noise pollution.

Finally the polished steel panels, set up at the loggias level, capture natural light and reflect it towards the apartments. These mirrors also offer to the residents an alternative outdoor vision.

“La Liberté” counts 120 apartments, split up in 15 different types with about 40 variants.

So the high rise construction allows free spaces at the bottom of the buildings. At the North of the building, and to answer to the order, Dominique Perrault lays out the ecologic garden designed to develop the local flora and fauna. Opened to everyone, it will be integrated into the city ecologic way. A “meditative” garden will be created at the South of the buildings. It will be a space offered and opened to everyone.

Dominique Perrault introduces here many levels of dialogue: between the project and its urban environment; between the both towers through their architectural treatment; between the public and the private spaces through easy transitions allowing the exchange between the residents and the people working in the offices.

Dominique Perrault realizes a building opened to the city: through this artful manipulation of differences in scale these buildings have been designed to become a new landmark signal, creating a new urban landscape.