Arch Go! 建筑实例 建筑图片 建筑文章翻译

建筑师:Zucchi & Partners

地点:意大利拉文纳

设计组:Cino Zucchi, Nicola Bianchi, Andrea Viganò with Leonardo Berretti, Ivan Bernardini, Juarez Corso

客户:Iter Cooperativa Ravennate Interventi Sul Territorio

结构:Studio di Ingegneria Due esse, Michele Berti

总占地面积:7,434 sqm

建筑占地面积:4,754 sqm

摄影:Cino Zucchi

这栋新建的住宅楼是大型城市重建项目中的一部分,城市重建项目紧邻拉文纳车站,位于一条人工运河的两侧,充当了该地工业区的港口。重建项目的整体规划由Boeri工作室设计而成,设计师们希望建立一座新公园,这座公园与水面和一系列河流两岸的高大建筑相平行,目前运河两岸还属于港口专用,但是一段时间之后会对公众开放。由于未来的场地用途尚未确定,因而设计师们为这栋住宅大楼打造了双面外观,既与现有的城市建筑风格紧密相连,同时又准备向水边开放,为将来可能转变成一个漫步场所做准备。在面向城市的一侧,绿色的土墙勾勒出室内停车场的轮廓,同时形成了一个向上隆起的中央庭院,可从这里俯瞰运河。通往电梯竖井的许多小型商店以及中庭,面向着这个半开放的“广场”, 一条与建筑相平行的斜坡将之与滨水漫步道紧紧相连。

大楼分为两个体量,其几何形式各不相同,在中间衔接它们的可居住的“桥”面对着运河一侧,这种结构为中庭部分营造了一种空间上的闭合感和亲密感。两栋楼的不同高度既未阻碍眺望市中心的视野,也考虑到了这个综合建筑物的朝阳。北立面(elevation一般译为立面)的设计使建筑看上去相当“庞大”,而南立面则将悬挑阳台的长水平线条当成特色。建筑物的主要立面是用一系列“有凹槽的”赤褐色水平模板装饰的,每一层立面使用两排模板,从而构成了一种彩色的灰泥抹面,即各种温暖的黏土色与钴蓝色的模板构成了“马赛克”图案——这是受拉文纳著名的拜占庭艺术风格的启发——让人们看到建筑物时容易产生一种图案失真的错觉。这种在建筑物规模上的瞬间“伪装”效果,有助于将实际的建筑规模与从水边和城市中对建筑的感知规模联系在一起。这栋大楼单独屹立在运河边,成为一个临时的标志性建筑,静静地等待着周围景观与建筑物的进一步改造。

一栋可持续发展的建筑

整栋建筑是按照以下“可持续发展”和节能建筑的最新标准进行构想的,并且实现了这些标准。设计师们仔细研究了建筑物主体与太阳方向之间的关系,并且针对建筑物的表面和开放的公共空间深入研究了所有时间和季节中的阴影图案。两个体量中较高的一栋位于北侧,较低的则位于南侧。建筑物南侧的几排阳台为起居室遮挡住了夏季的阳光,同时使得角度较小的冬季阳光能够照射到室内,极大地提高了建筑物的能源效率。较小的洞口成为北立面的特色,这些洞口降低了热透射率。建筑物所需能源的重要组成部分是由安放在两栋建筑物屋顶平台上的太阳能电池板提供的。

在钢筋网上涂抹一层灰泥,在建筑外表皮形成了厚厚的保温隔热材料,这使得热透射率非常低,既节约能源,同时也为公寓营造了极为舒适的环境。所有的材料都能进行生物降解或者易于处理:石质的窗台、铁杉木的窗框以及大部分外表面所用的天然灰泥。

原文:

Architects: Zucchi & Partners

Location: Ravenna, Italy

Design Team: Cino Zucchi, Nicola Bianchi, Andrea Viganò with Leonardo Berretti, Ivan Bernardini, Juarez Corso

Client: Iter Cooperativa Ravennate Interventi Sul Territorio

Structures: Studio di Ingegneria Due esse, Michele Berti

Area dimension: 7,434 sqm

Dimensions: 4,754 sqm

Photographs: Cino Zucchi

The new residential building is part of a large urban renewal project next to the Ravenna station on both sides of an artificial canal serving as a harbour for the industries of the area. The overall plan by Boeri studio envisages a new park parallel to the water and a series of rather tall volumes along the waterfront, which currently belongs to the harbour precinct but should in time become open to the public. Within the uncertainty of this “Sliding Doors” future, we designed a double-faced residential complex, relating to the existing city fabric but ready to open toward the water edge and its possible future transformation into a promenade. On the city side, a green rampart hosting the covered parking leads to a raised central court overlooking the water. A number of small shops and the atriums leading to the vertical distribution shafts opens onto this semi-public “piazza”, which will be connected to the water promenade by a ramp running parallel to the structure.

The geometric inflections of the two building blocks and the lived-in “bridge” connecting them on the water side contribute to give a sense of spatial enclosure and intimacy to the central court. The different height of the blocks are related to the long views toward the inner city and to the solar orientation of the complex. While the north side elevations of the buildings are treated in a rather “volumetric” way, the south ones are marked by the long horizontal lines of the overhanging balconies.The main facades of the building are marked by a number of terracotta horizontal “notched in” mouldings – two for every floor height – framing a plaster rendering of different shades of warm, clay-coloured shades in different hues and a cobalt blue one, creating a “mosaic” pattern – somehow inspired by Ravenna’s famous Byzantine art – which generates a sort of scalar distortion in the perception of the building. This effect of momentary “camouflage” of the dimension of the building helps connecting its “domestic” dimension to its perception from the waterside and the city, where it stands alone as a temporary “landmark” waiting for the development to transform the landscape or this part of the city.

A sustainable building

The whole complex is conceived and realized following the latest criteria for “sustainable” and energy conscious buildings. The building masses are carefully studied in relationship with the sun orientation, with an in-depth study of the shadow pattern at all hours and seasons both on the building surfaces and on the open collective spaces. The higher building is located on the north side and the lower on the south one. The rows of balconies on the south side of the buildings screen the living rooms from the summer sun rays, while admitting the lower winter ones, greatly contributing to the energy efficiency of the complex. The north facades are marked by smaller openings contributing to low thermal transmittance. A significant part of the energy required by the building is provided by solar panels placed on the rooftop terraces of the two buildings.

The thick “overcoat” insulation finished by a layer of plaster on mesh provides very low values of heat transmittance, saving energy and creating high environmental comfort for the dwellings. All materials are biodegradable or easily disposed of: stone for the window-sills, hemlock wood for the window frames, natural plaster for most of the exterior surfaces.