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建筑师: Estudio Entresitio

地点:西班牙马德里

总建筑师:María Hurtado, César Jiménez, José María Hurtado

设计团队:Carolina Leveroni, Stefan Vogt, Jorge Martínez, Laura Frutos, Pablo Sacristán, Filipe Minderico, Anne-Dorothée Herbort, Irene de la Cruz, Miguel Crespo, Alvar Ruiz

结构:CYPE Ingenieros Estudios y Proyectos, S.A.

面积:15,450 sqm

年份:2009

摄影:Roland Halbe, Montserrat Zamorano

马德里市政住房局在2003年年末举办了一场竞赛,该项目在竞赛中脱颖而出。这场竞赛的理念是希望每支参赛队伍都能够呈现出可以想象出来的最佳建筑设计方案,符合建造地点的“经济”特征,同时也可以使建筑表面和住宅数量达到最大化,并且始终牢记其社会保障住房的特征。

参赛者如何选择决定了“标准化的”解决方案是否可以满足地面占用区域、结构、高度等其他方面的城市规划条件,或者像我们设计的实例一样,提出一个需要进一步改变规划设计的方案。我们的中选方案是设计一栋22层的高塔。

我们可以从多个方面诠释这个项目,但有一点是我们想要着重强调的,那就是平面规划的效率与诸如像住宅解决方案这样给定的功能性项目之间存在着很大的关系。我们将公寓设计成能够“出租”的形式,它们的面积较小,而大部分的庇护住宅也是按照最小的尺寸规则进行设计的。

该项目共有132间一居室和两居室的住宅单元,楼面净面积为9000平方米,此外还有300平方米的地下商业区域。

在地上区域中,建筑物占据了建造范围的70%,整体结构的正面全部后移,扩大了前方的人行道位置,释放了更多的公共空间,同时也自然缓解了地下的商业区域。这种后移避免了区域规划中典型倒角和锋利的体量形状的形成。

对于特定的建筑面积来说,减少建筑物的占地面积必然会增加其高度,因而在这种情况下,我们提出建造侧面部分具有特殊形状的建筑体量,这一点可以说是非比寻常的。人们也许会认为建筑物是大楼和体块由中心结构体聚合而成的,然而我们更感兴趣的是高度上的自由扩展,而在整体和局部之间达到平衡多少会让人有一丝不安。

平面图的解决方案以“双对称”的几何形状处理过程为基础,就像利用字体变形进行制作一样,当文字或数字旋转180°时人们仍然可以读懂其中的内涵。这种策略能够淡化不同部分间的差异,因为每一部分都不是那么清晰,从而将其余部分连在一起。同样平面图的设计方案也与这样一个事实密切相关,那就是建筑作为一个自由的体块,被看成是前后、首尾之间并没有差别,它同样与通往绿色区域的双侧通道相呼应,绿色区域在另外一侧的建筑正面不断延纵向伸展开来。

只有在这种混合式的发展过程中剖开一个小口,露出一丝端倪,我们才会逐步了解多样性是如何体现在这个项目中的。尽管所有的公寓都有一间或两间卧室,最小的元素在建筑物的高度上也已设置好,并在一楼得到开发,然而联式住宅作为功能上并无差别的重复元素,占据了底座的纵向发展区域。这些住房并不是区域的分支部分,而是解决了平面和剖面部分互相交错的难题。

联式住宅由两间多功能室组成,这两间多功能室彼此交叉,能够通向北部和南部区域。人们能够通过一层进入其中,它们与住宅的典型用途(规划得出的)或第三种应用,即一层的商业区域和办公室,以及地下区域上方的任意一层都能遥相呼应。

的确,我们可以有许多方式来阐释一个项目,还有一种诠释的方式就是处理好建筑物与城市之间的关系,在某种程度上这需要拥有全新的住宅体系,正如马德里的这个项目,与许多类似建筑一样缺少定义。

从这个意义上说,该项目对好几个层面都有影响。外壳运用了没有差异化的材料,呈现出尺度的模糊性。如鳞片一般的锌板排布成水平带状,一个接一个地滑动,彼此之间有些许错位,填充了其中的空隙,从而模糊了楼层间的界限。我们设计了一组特色鲜明的窗户系统,这些窗户都安装在房间内侧的最佳位置上。

支撑结构既具有统一性,也具有多样性,在其中增添一些突出的板条箱,作为随意的造型,为立面结构带来了些许变化。

“尺度的并存”与“尺度的模糊”,这两个概念说大也大,说小也小,彼此之间也没有以或大或小的形式呈现出来,随着时间的推移,这座有着悠久历史的城市与持续的发展进程形成了其他的环境,而这两个概念间的关系便在这之中展开了对话。

通过这种方式,我们将常规的和非比寻常的设计融合在一起,让当地常规式的窗户经过特殊的排布,呈现出清晰的功能顺序,有助于人们将整座建筑理解为一个统一体。

还有第三种阐释该项目的方式,可以命名为“建筑与技术”,它应对的是想法的可行性,使这些设计理念都能够得以实现。在方案的执行和建造过程中,会出现筛选出合适的法规、规划、预算以及论证建造可行性等一系列过程,而最重要的,是对所提出的各种主题实现真正的空间转换。

因此锌板立面便成了核心点,不仅因为其实际建造问题,同时它也是节约能源的战略意义所在。我们提出了低维护成本的解决方案——通风,它有助于立面的蒸发过程,保护建筑物不受雨水的渗透侵蚀,同时也会防止缝隙结露。通风系统包括建筑物的声学优化和隔热性能,处于砖墙的外侧,避免了冷桥形成的可能。

炎热的夏季会产生 “烟囱效应”,阳光使积聚在房间内的空气变热,空气对流使变热的空气不断上升,迫使新鲜空气进入立面的较低位置,避免了内层空间积聚热量。

然而在冬季,太阳辐射并不足以形成空气流动,通风的立面作为蓄热系统便可以形成相反的效果,实现空气流动。

原文:

Architects: Estudio Entresitio

Location: Madrid, Spain

Architects In Charge: María Hurtado, César Jiménez, José María Hurtado

Design Team: Carolina Leveroni, Stefan Vogt, Jorge Martínez, Laura Frutos, Pablo Sacristán, Filipe Minderico, Anne-Dorothée Herbort, Irene de la Cruz, Miguel Crespo, Alvar Ruiz

Structure: CYPE Ingenieros Estudios y Proyectos, S.A.

Area: 15,450 sqm

Year: 2009

Photography: Roland Halbe, Montserrat Zamorano

This project is the result of a competition run by Madrid’s Municipal Housing Agency at the end of 2003. The philosophy of the competition was that each team would offer the best architecture solution that was able to imagine, subject to compliance with the “economic” parameters for the lot; maximum surface to be built and number of dwellings, and always considering that it is a social housing development.

It was the choice of the contestants to decide whether a “measured” solution that would meet the other urban planning conditions of floor occupation, alignments, heights, etc.., or if, as was our case, raised a proposal that needed further planning changes. Our winning proposal was a tower of 22 floors.

The project can be explained in many ways, but there is one to which we do not like to resign, that has to do with the floor plan’s efficiency and the resolution of a given functional program such as housing. We deal with apartments “for rent” that are characterized by their small size, as they are, from sheltered housing, those most in line with the minimum dimensional regulations.

The project builds a total of 132 one and two bedrooms housing units, for a net floor area of 9000 sqm plus 300 sqm of ground floor commercial use.

Above ground, the building occupies 70% of the limit set by the alignment of the façades, with a general setback to liberate more public space on the front sidewalk access and natural relief of ground floor commercial use. This setback can avoid the typical chamfers of the area planning and work with sharper volume geometry.

For a certain floor area, reducing the footprint of the building necessarily implies growing in height and in this case we propose a shaped volume with a profile proportions, lets say, uncommon. One might think of the building as an aggregation of a tower and a block by a central body, but we are more interested in the idea of a free development in height, where the balance between the parts and the whole is somewhat disturbing.

The floor plan solution is based on the geometric process of “double symmetry”, as in the ambigrams, which are words or figures that can be read alike when rotated 180 degrees. This strategy works to blur the different parts as the order of each one is not clear and becomes associated with the order of the others. It also has to do with the fact that the building, as a free block, is perceived as a piece in which there is no distinction between front and rear or beginning and end, and responds similarly to both the access road as to the green zone that runs lengthwise on the other front.

Only in a clinical cut of this mixed development, we would begin to understand how diversity has ordered the program. Although all the apartments have 1 or 2 bedrooms, the smallest elements are set in height, and developed on one floor, while the duplex, as repetition of functionally undifferentiated units, occupy the longitudinal development of the plinth. The homes are not the result of an a priori subdivision of the plant but are solved interlaced both in plan and section.

The duplex units are composed of two versatile rooms that cross section to enjoy both North and South directions. By having access by the first floor can respond to both, the characteristic use (planning) of housing or to tertiary application, commercial and offices at the first floor and hosting at any level above ground floor.

As indeed there are many ways of explaining a project, there is another one that deals with the urban character of the building, with the construction of the city and the need to, somehow, characterize new residential tissues, in this case of Madrid, that as many others lack of intention in its definition.

In this sense the project works on several levels. The outer shell uses resources of non-differentiation and scale ambiguity. It is a skin of zinc scales set in horizontal bands that slide one over another with a slight offset, and in which voids are inserted with the intention of not making clear the floor levels. We propose a combinatorial system of recognizable types of housing windows which are placed at the best position from the inside of the rooms.

On this support structure of unity and also of diversity, are added some projecting crates, that as free forms of distortion, introduce a slight vibration on the elevation.

The relationship between the concepts of “coexistence of scales” and “scaling ambiguity”, what is big and what is small along with what is not revealed either as large or small, establishes the dialogue that occurs in other settings by the historic city and the successive developments that occur in it over the time.

The relationship between the concepts of “coexistence of scales” and “scaling ambiguity”, what is big and what is small along with what is not revealed either as large or small, establishes the dialogue that occurs in other settings by the historic city and the successive developments that occur in it over the time.

In this way we mix day-to-day and extraordinary, the regular domestic window that corresponds to a clear functional order with extraordinary placements, removing the composition and helping to understand the whole as a uniform mass.

There is also a third way of explaining the project that could be the titled as “architecture and technique”, which deals with the fitting of ideas to make them buildable. In developing the execution project and during the construction process occurs filtering of legislation, planning, budgeting, constructive feasibility and, above all, the real spatial translation of the topics raised.

Thus, the zinc facade becomes the central argument not only for its physical implementation, but also as an energy efficiency strategy. We propose a low maintenance solution, ventilated, which facilitates the transpiration of the facade, protects the building from rainwater infiltration and prevents interstitial condensation. It involves the optimization of acoustic and thermal insulation of the building, which being located on the outside of the brick walls, avoids possible thermal bridges.

In the hot season, it produces a “chimney effect”, the sun heats the air standing in the chamber, rising by convection and forcing fresh air to enter on the lower part of the façade, preventing the accumulation of heat in the inter layer space.

In winter, however, solar radiation is not sufficient to produce the movements of air and ventilated facade acts as a heat accumulator to produce the opposite effect.